What are the solutions and avenues to significantly increase the efficiency of air conditioning and cooling?

Use of air conditioning and cooling solutions is expected to grow at a dramatic rate in the next one decade, mainly in the developing economies with large middle-class populations. Present solutions for cooling require significant amounts of energy and hence, such a furious growth in the usage of air conditioners worldwide will contribute to significant energy consumption and increased greenhouse gas emissions. Highly energy efficient air conditioning and cooling solutions could make all the difference to this situation. What technologies and innovations can make cooling and air conditioning far more energy efficient?